By Francois Bancilhon, Gilles Barbedette (auth.), Klaus R. Dittrich (eds.)
This quantity collects papers offered on the 2d foreign Workshop on Object-Oriented Database structures (ooDBS-II) held on the Ebernburg close to undesirable Münster am Stein, FRG, in September 1988. It therefore supplies a accomplished evaluation of the most recent advancements during this flourishing zone of present database study. Object-oriented database structures were approached with usually significant intentions in brain, specifically to higher help new software parts like CAD/CAM, place of work automation, wisdom engineering, and to beat the 'impedance mismatch' among information versions and programming languages. The suggestion of object-orientation in database structures is hence a broader one than e.g. within the sector of programming languages. Structural object-orientation presents for facts version mechanisms that let the direct illustration and manipulation of highly-structured entities; behavioral object-orientation cares for amenities to affiliate arbitrary user-defined type-specific operations with information entities; ultimately, complete object-orientation attempts to mix some great benefits of either different types. although facts version suggestions are the decisive function of object-oriented database structures, quite a few different method points need to be reconsidered or enable larger options, respectively, during this mild. They comprise e.g. transactions, implementation strategies, optimization, formalization, the inclusion of principles, and the mixing with different platforms. a few study prototypes or even a few advertisement platforms are in the meantime on hand. either, techniques to increase databases with object-oriented functions and techniques to increase object-oriented programming languages with database beneficial properties were and are being investigated.
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The averages also include answers from those respondents who responded to some but not all questions. Page 14 The Survey Instrument The questionnaire (Appendix A) was divided into two parts, dealing with trade and investment, respectively. The ten principal dimensions of non-tariff restrictions to trade were addressed: (1) import controls, (2) technical and environmental standards, (3) testing and certification, (4) product licensing, (5) entry, (6) distribution networks, (7) ownership requirements for bidding on government contracts, (8) openness in bidding on nondefense contracts, (9) openness in bidding on defense-related contracts, (10) protection of intellectual property rights.
The ten trade-related questions form the horizontal axis, and the vertical axis represents the mean responses to each question. Each line represents one country. The United States is consistently judged to have the most open economy, usually followed by the European Union. In all cases, differences in medians between the two trading entities are statistically significant at the 5 percent confidence level. 1 reveals virtually parallel lines for the United States and the EU. The largest gap between the two economies is in terms of ease of integration in domestic distribution networks.
The survey instrument was field-tested and revised three times to verify two key assumptions. These assumptions stem from our treatment of discrete data as continuous and our reliance on means and variances as key statistics in the analysis. Focusing on means allows us to compare and rank countries with respect to each question. Because the data are discrete and we cover only five countries, the statistical significance of differences in means is nugatory. 15 The variances of response serve as a measure of consensus.