By Robert M. Crunden
In American Salons, Robert Crunden offers a sweeping account of the yank come upon with ecu Modernism as much as the yankee access into global battle I. Crunden starts with deft images of the figures who have been crucial to the start of Modernism, together with James Whistler, the eccentric expatriate American painter who turned the archetypal artist in his gown and behaviour, and Henry and William James, who broke new flooring within the style of the radical and in psychology, influencing a global viewers in a huge diversity of fields. on the center of the publication are the yank salons--the intimate, own gatherings of artists and intellectuals the place Modernism flourished. In Chicago, Floyd Dell and Margery Currey unfold new principles to Sherwood Anderson, Theodore Dreiser, and others. In London, Ezra Pound may be chanced on at the back of every little thing from the cigars of W. B. Yeats to the prose of Ford Madox Hueffer. In Paris, the salons of Leo and Gertrude Stein, and Michael and Sarah Stein, gave Picasso and Matisse their first safe audiences and earning; in the meantime, Gertrude Stein produced a brand new writing kind that had an incalculable influence at the iteration of Ernest Hemingway. most vital of all have been the salons of latest York urban. Alfred Stieglitz pioneered new varieties of images on the well-known 291 Gallery. Mabel evade introduced jointly modernist playwrights and painters, introducing them to political reformers and radicals. on the salon of Walter and Louise Arensberg, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia rubbed shoulders with Wallace Stevens, guy Ray, and William Carlos Williams. by way of 1917, no paintings in the US remained untouched through those new associations. From the journalism of H. L. Mencken to the recognized 1913 Armory exhibit in manhattan, Crunden illuminates this pivotal period, providing perceptive insights and evocative descriptions of the important personalities of Modernism.
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Additional resources for American Salons: Encounters with European Modernism, 1885-1917
William had enrolled in nine schools in four countries by the time he was eighteen, rarely remaining more than a few months in any of them, and enduring a variety of tutors in the intervening periods. He thus never received anything systematic from William. James 33 schooling, and never throughout his life recalled any person or institution as having been formative in his growth. Yet such a "rootless and accidental childhood," as his sister Alice called it, also saved him from the deadening effects of the typical American school.
His most important innovations as a mature painter involved his nocturnes, another musical term which could apply equally well to painting. Whistler developed the habit of going out at dusk; at first he took notes, but later he trusted the memory he had been cultivating since his first days in Paris. He was, in addition, notoriously near-sighted, and what his natural incapacities did not blur and confuse, the increas- James Whistler 21 ing dark did. "His method was to ... " The next morning, if he could see the complete picture before him, he painted; if not, he might repeat the whole procedure again that evening.
Having grown up in a family that was an incubator of neuroses, James managed the difficult task of converting personal misery into scientific theory. He became a cosmopolitan committed to the study of consciousness, a central concern to young modernists not only in itself but in such related areas as the unconscious and the supernormal. In studying consciousness in its philosophical, psychological, and religious contexts he had more influence on American modernists than any other American thinker, and was the most influential American influence on Europeans.